Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances

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更新日期2017年11月20日
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DIVISION OF PLANT TOXICOLOGY

Division of Plant Toxicology

  • 點閱:3919
  • 資料來源:TACTRI / COA
  • 日期:2013/09/17

 

 

OBJECTIVES 

 

The Department of Plant Toxicology develops and applies technologies to safeguard plants and the surrounding agricultural environment against pollutants, misuse of pesticides, weeds and other noxious plant species. Researchers have access to excellent facilities and instruments to explore plant responses to pesticides and pollutants at cellular and intact plant level. The Department has initiated the following programs related to pollution study: biomonitoring of industrial waste water, impact and monitoring of fluoride air pollutant in an agricultural environment, and chronic toxicity of ozone and sulfur dioxide on plants. Pesticide research in this department emphasizes developing techniques to assess and diagnose phytotoxicity induced by agricultural chemicals. Studies are also performed on herbicidal selectivity and plant resistance to herbicides. Weed research has established strong programs on quarantine, field survey, chemical control and weed management on turf and orchards. This Department also provides the following technical services: diagnosis of plant injuries caused by pesticides and pollutants, phytotoxicity tests of pesticides, weed seeds for research use, weed identification, and consultancy on how to control and manage weeds.

 

MAIN WORK

 

Survey and management of weeds on farmlands in Taiwan

 
The species of weeds inhabited on 661 farmlands for cultivating paddy rice, vegetables, fruit trees, flowers, special crops, and fallow were investigated. The detected species of weeds span 54 families and 297 genera. The most (28%) species of weeds belong to the families of Gramineae and Acteraceae with 41 and 42 species, respectively. Then the followed common species belong to the families of Sedge and Scrophulariaceae both with 23 species.
1. The harmful effects of invasive weed species in Taiwan:
The invasive weeds could cause several adverse effects including reduction of crop production, occupation of habitats of native species, affecting health of human and animals, and destruction of landscapes, etc. The main and long-existed invasive weeds have 10 species including John grass and water hyacinth. The recent 20 to 30 years invasive weeds have 7 species including ragweed and guayule.
2. The weed quarantine of imported cereals:
In the past 10 years, we have inspected cereals and produces from 25 countries and found 88.9% of the tested samples carrying seeds of weeds. These detected seeds belong to 130 weed species and 38 species of them are not indigenous in Taiwan. It is evident that imported cereals carrying weed seeds are major route of invasive weed species. We have to prevent invasive weeds by strict quarantine.
 

Monitoring, survey and risk assessment of non-indigenous plant

 
1. The harmful effects of invasive weed species in Taiwan:
The invasive weeds could cause several adverse effects including reduction of crop production, occupation of habitats of native species, affecting health of human and animals, and destruction of landscapes, etc. The main and long-existed invasive weeds including Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) and Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth). The recent 20 to 30 years invasive weeds including Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) and Parthenium hysterophorus (common Parthenium). 
2. The weed quarantine of imported cereals:
In the past 10 years, we inspected cereals and produces from 25 countries and found 88.9% of the tested samples carrying seeds of weeds. These detected seeds belong to 130 weed species and 38 species of them are not indigenous in Taiwan. It is evident that cereals carrying weed seeds are major route for invasive weed species. We have to prevent invasive weeds by strict quarantine.